Based on the official evidence in the John F. Kennedy murder case, all of the following things are true:

1.) President John F. Kennedy and Texas Governor John B. Connally were shot by rifle bullets in Dallas' Dealey Plaza on Friday, November 22, 1963.

2.) Lee Harvey Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle (Serial Number C2766) was located inside a building which overlooked the assassination site (the Texas School Book Depository) when JFK and JBC were being wounded by gunfire.

3.) A nearly-whole bullet (Warren Commission Exhibit #399) was found inside the hospital where JFK and JBC were taken after the shooting. And CE399 was found in a location within the hospital where President Kennedy was never located prior to the bullet being found by Darrell Tomlinson. (Nor was JFK's stretcher ever in the area of the hospital where Tomlinson discovered the bullet.)

4.) Bullet CE399 was positively fired from Lee Harvey Oswald's rifle.

5.) Bullet CE399, based on the above points in total, HAD to have been inside Governor Connally's body on 11/22/63.

6.) A man who looked like Lee Harvey Oswald was seen firing a rifle at the President's limousine from a southeast corner window on the 6th Floor of the Book Depository Building. No other gunmen were seen firing any weapons in Dealey Plaza on November 22nd.

7.) No bullets (or large bullet fragments) were found in the upper back or neck of John Kennedy's body. And no significant damage was found inside these areas of JFK's body either.

8.) No bullets (or large bullet fragments) were found inside the body of Governor Connally after the shooting. The only bullet, anywhere, that can possibly be connected with Connally's wounds is Bullet CE399.

9.) Given the point in time when both JFK and JBC were first hit by rifle fire (based on the Abraham Zapruder Film), and given the known location of Governor Connally's back (entrance) wound, and also taking into account the individual points made above -- Bullet CE399 had no choice but to have gone through the body of President Kennedy prior to entering the back of John B. Connally.


#1 through #9 above add up to a logical, common-sense short explanation to the events in Dealey Plaza on November 22nd, 1963 (excluding the head shot that killed President Kennedy).

The nine points above, in my common-sense view, make the Single-Bullet Theory more than just a "theory" -- it's almost certainly the only conceivable way that President John F. Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally were wounded on Elm Street in Dallas in 1963.

Any alternative theory that must replace the SBT would be a theory that is replete with far more guesswork and unexplainable occurrences than the Single-Bullet Theory possesses.

Such an alternative theory must include multiple disappearing bullets, plus several "SBT"-like coincidences at the same time. Is that very likely? Or logical? I say it is not.

The Single-Bullet Theory is based on the EVIDENCE in the actual John F. Kennedy murder case, as investigated by the Commission assigned to look into the assassination by President Lyndon Johnson.

And the SBT, in addition to being grounded in the known evidence surrounding the case, is also based on a whole lot of regular, ordinary common sense as well.

No "Anti-SBT" scenario has ever come close to matching the Warren Commission's Single-Bullet Conclusion in the "Evidence" department. Nor has any alternate theory come close to equalling the SBT in the "Reasonable", "Workable", "Believable", and "Common Sense" categories as well.

The Single-Bullet Theory FITS.
The Single-Bullet Theory WORKS.
The Single-Bullet Theory is RIGHT.

David Von Pein
March 2007



  • "Several factors make it clear that Kennedy and Connally WERE struck by the same bullet. There's absolutely no evidence of the existence of any separate bullet hitting Connally." -- Vincent T. Bugliosi; 1986


  • "It's a straight [the SBT] is the only way it COULD have
    -- Dale K. Myers; 2004


  • "You call it the theory; I call it the conclusion; it was a theory until we found the facts; that's why I refer to it as the Single-Bullet Conclusion." -- Arlen Specter; 1967



Here are some of my thoughts regarding the Single-Bullet Theory, and the likelihood that ANY conspiracy-oriented alternative could be MORE credible than the SBT (given the known wounds in the two victims [President John F. Kennedy and Texas Governor John B. Connally, Jr.] and other known evidence surrounding the shooting event that occurred in Dallas' Dealey Plaza on November 22, 1963):

If the Single-Bullet Theory is incorrect, then we are forced to believe that not just ONE, but TWO, rifle bullets failed to penetrate all the way through the neck and back of JFK, from probably high-powered weapons (because WHY would any plotters trying to kill the President--and no doubt wanting to MAKE SURE THEY KILL HIM AT ALL COSTS--utilize anything BUT high-powered weaponry in such a murder attempt)?

Logical? I say no, it is not.*

* = Mark Fuhrman's anti-SBT, pro-LN stance notwithstanding here. Because there are numerous reasons why I feel that Mr. Fuhrman is wrong when he asserts that a bullet went all the way through JFK, missed John Connally, and also failed to plunge into the seats or the floor of the limousine in front of Kennedy. Here is why Fuhrman is just flat-out wrong regarding his analysis.

If conspiracy theorists wish to argue that perhaps ONE of the shots was a "dum-dum" of some type, or that ONE shot was a misfire and therefore the velocity entering Kennedy was severely reduced -- okay. But TWO such shots of this kind that do not transit the soft flesh of JFK in the throat AND upper back regions?

Odds please?

Even if CTers want to argue that the "angles" are not precisely dead-on correct for the SBT to "work" or "align" properly back to the Oswald window in the Texas School Book Depository -- in my considered viewpoint, any theory that we're forced to substitute for the official SBT falls apart on many different levels.

For example -- Here's what certainly MUST have occurred (via the CT account) INSTEAD of the SBT:

1.) Three shots must "replace" the one single shot known as the "SBT". There IS no way around this first point here. Because lacking the SBT to explain the throat wound to JFK and both of the victims' separate back wounds, CTers are forced to postulate that one of the two following things occurred......

A.) The bullet that struck JFK did go all the way through him but, somehow spectacularly, MISSED the man sitting right in front of him who was in direct line to receive this bullet and this bullet was then scooped up from inside the limo by plotters after the fact and disposed of AND the damage to the inside of the limousine that was no doubt caused by this bullet was completely eradicated in very short order after the event. Likely (even in a CT world)? Hardly. Especially in light of this WC testimony from Robert Frazier of the FBI......

ARLEN SPECTER -- "Did your examination of the President's limousine disclose any other holes or markings which could have conceivably been caused by a bullet striking the automobile or any part of the automobile?"

ROBERT FRAZIER -- "No, sir."

-- Or: --

B.) Lacking a shot that transits JFK, we're left to accept a three-shot scenario to explain these wounds to the two victims -- fired by THREE separate gunmen as well (two from the rear and one from the front). Given the very tight timeline (even per CTers, who have JFK hit in the throat with Shot #1 at Z195 to Z200 approx.), I'd like to know how there could have possibly been LESS than three gunmen utilized to inflict all these wounds in the allowable timeframe?

2.) All three of these (supposedly) entry wounds on JFK and JBC line themselves up in such a fashion on the bodies to give the APPEARANCE that they could have ALL been "in line" so as to have been caused by just a single missile passing through both men simultaneously.

I have yet to hear any reasonable and believable conspiracy-oriented explanation that logically rationalizes and defends this amazing "wound placement" occurrence on TWO different victims. Even CTers must admit that the likelihood of these wounds aligning in such a fashion on two victims is pretty remote at best. For, if THREE gunmen managed to pull that shooting feat off with three different bullets, then it's a marksmanship accomplishment that should be featured prominently at Ripley's Believe-It-Or-Not Museum.

3.) The three bullets that are replacing the SBT via a CTer's alternate theory now ALL get lost! Or are ALL disposed of by evil plotters! In either instance, all three bullets that peppered Kennedy and Connally are never entered into any kind of official record representing this murder case. Odds please? Is this a logical conclusion to come to?

For one thing: Why didn't Dr. Malcolm Perry (or Dr. Carrico or Dr. Jenkins or Dr. McClelland) physically SEE the bullet that only ventured part way through Mr. Kennedy's throat? It seems logical to me, given the HANDS-ON circumstances we're dealing with here re. Perry's having to make an actual incision into this VERY wound in the throat for tracheostomy purposes, that Perry (or others) might very well have been able to see the bullet in JFK's throat, seeing as how it did not exit, per this theory.

In short, how could the "plotters" have possibly gotten THAT LUCKY so that all three of those whole bullets, in 2 bodies, were never recovered by anyone at Parkland Hospital, and so lucky to NOT have even ONE of these three bullets enter the official record at any time? Especially with regard to the Connally AWOL bullet. Here's a bullet that enters a man who LIVED through the ordeal, and whose body could not be "controlled" later at some "fixed" or "phonied" autopsy by the conspirators (as many CTers believe occurred with respect to JFK's autopsy at Bethesda).

This Connally bullet, IMO, is the KEY bullet that shows beyond any reasonable doubt that no foul play was afoot with respect to the bullets. This unexpected second victim of the assassination attempt (JBC), and yet another (third) bullet that is conveniently "missing", makes it FAR more difficult to believe in a vast conspiracy and cover-up in this case (overall).

I ask -- What are the odds that the plotters could have "controlled" all the trace evidence within TWO victims within such a covert plot, one of whom survived the shooting?

4.) With respect to TWO separate bullets that BOTH fail to transit the body of President Kennedy, I'll ask again the same recurring inquiry here -- What Are The Odds? What is the likelihood that these conspirators would have had TWO "dud" rounds fired into JFK? -- TWO non-lethal missiles that pierce his body only a LITTLE BIT, and fail to kill him OR to penetrate the soft tissues of his neck and upper back? Doesn't this sound the slightest bit GOOFY to anyone else but me?

But perhaps a better question here might be -- WHY would killers, bent on having a dead President by the end of November 22nd, have utilized such low-powered weaponry in a Presidential assassination attempt? Shouldn't they have wanted, and insisted, on the MAXIMUM firepower possible here? And if not, why not? Why would ANY "Pre-Kill" shots NEED to be fired at the President? Just...why? Does this add up at all?

When combined all together, don't ALL of these CT points that would have HAD to have occurred in order to explain the "SBT wounds" AND lack of bullets entering the official record seem just a tad far-fetched and unrealistic?

To me, they're more than just a "tad" far-fetched and unreasonable -- they're downright illogical from every point-of-view. It seems to me that any attempts to explain those wounds that were sustained at virtually an identical time by John Kennedy and John Connally in a "CT light" fail to hold up the least little bit when held up to the bright light of scrutiny.

If the only way to explain away the SBT to fit a conspiracy scenario is to come up with a plot that includes three different shooters, firing three bullets into two different victims, from three different locations, and incredibly have all three of these missiles pepper the victims in just such a pattern so that it looks like it COULD (even remotely so) be reconciled into a "SBT", and then (on top of this miracle bit of shooting by three different gunmen) to get ALL THREE of these separate bullets to vanish and to never enter the official record -- then, from where I sit, plain ol' common sense is telling me that something's just a bit screwy about this "CT" plot which perfectly worked out to appease the WC and its loyal followers.

And -- Any such "multi-shooter" scenario is also very unlikely (probability-wise alone) from the popular "Frame The Patsy Oswald" standpoint. Would these plotters have deliberately been so foolhardy and utterly reckless as to fire three separate shots into JFK's body (including the head shot), from varying angles (some of them non-"SN" angles), and yet still, incredibly, expect every last scrap of ballistic evidence to get traced back to ONLY Lee Oswald's rifle AND get traced back to only Oswald's "Sniper's Nest" window in the Depository?

They couldn't possibly have thought that this "Multi-Shooter Patsy Plan" could succeed on its BEST day! Could they? (I think not.)

Whereas, the lone-assassin scenario rests on the very logical and sound shoulders of the Single-Bullet Theory -- a theory in which all of the following is thoroughly explained......

1.) Every bullet (totalling 'one' in number) is recovered and enters the official record (Bullet #CE399). There are no mysteries as to any "missing" missiles.

2.) The fact that no bullets were found inside JFK or JBC is perfectly logical and to be expected via the SBT. Plus the very important fact that no bullet holes or similar missile damage was done to the limo's interior in the back seat areas of the automobile.

3.) All wounds to both men are perfectly consistent with the SBT. The downward, back-to-front and slightly right-to-left "alignment" of the wounds suffered by JFK and JBC are, IMO, wholly indicative of a single shot that passed through both men (esp. when factoring in the oblong wound in the back sustained by JBC, plus the lack of bullets found in the bodies, AND the fact that no one ELSE was hit by gunfire in the limousine, AND the fact that no damage was done to the car's rear or jump seats by any missiles during the shooting).

4.) Via the Zapruder Film, the SBT "holds up" under intense scrutiny as well (IMO), with both victims reacting to external (bullet) stimulus at virtually an identical time on the film. People will no doubt argue this point until the cows come home, but I still defy ANYONE to look at the Z-Film (running at regular, real-time speed) and tell me they can say with certainty that President Kennedy and Governor Connally are NOT reacting to being hit by a bullet at the very same point in time.


Many CTers don't think it's necessary at all to come up with any kind of logical "alternative" scenario to explain all the wounds to JFK and JBC -- let alone a full, complete version of the pre-Head Shot event which would tie up all or most of the "loose ends" with regard to this event. They just seem to KNOW that the SBT is dead wrong based on the angles being slightly off or the reactions of the two victims being far enough apart to make the SBT an impossibility.

But any CT substitute answers to reconcile all these wounds in two victims (when such answers occasionally are provided, always in the form of pure out-and-out guesses by the CT community) are far less credible and less substantive and far less believable than is the official version of the event -- the SBT.

In fact, even the majority of CTers (from what I've seen anyway) cannot even agree with EACH OTHER on some of the most essential and basic things that occurred on Elm Street on 11/22/63.

The critics have done little to disprove the SBT. But, on the flip-side of that coin, there have been true-to-life and animated tests performed over the years that have backed up (concretely) the validity of the Single-Bullet Theory. But these tests, too, have been ridiculed as being "inaccurate", with "manufactured" angles and results, and incorrect measurements utilized. I, naturally, completely and fervently disagree.

Based on what I've seen of these "tests" (the FAA simulation, Dale Myers' project, and the 2004 Discovery Channel SBT re-creation, which should, in my view, be VERY convincing to any critic of the theory, but, of course, is not), they've been conducted in an open and wholly above-board and honest manner, with re-creations that are as close to being as accurate as humanly possible (esp. given the "unknowns" regarding some measurements -- like the EXACT positioning of Mr. Connally's wrist at the moment the bullet hit him, plus the EXACT positioning of JFK and JBC to each other in the car during the shooting; these things can only be "guesses" to a certain extent, no matter which side of the debate you reside on, as I'm sure even all CTers will concur).

What I'd like to see are similar "Discovery Channel"-like tests done by the CT side, in order to PROVE once and for all their belief that the SBT is so full of holes you could drive the President's 1961 Lincoln Continental convertible through them! Thus far, I've seen no such tests that would prove that either Mr. Myers or The Discovery Channel got it completely wrong.

Until such proof can be reasonably demonstrated, I truly cannot see how anyone can totally dismiss the possibility (or probability, IMO) that the Single-Bullet Theory is the CORRECT THEORY in the JFK murder case.

I challenge anyone watching the Zapruder Film clip below to still maintain after watching it that the Single-Bullet Theory is a Lone-Nutter's wild fantasy:

David Von Pein
May 2005
February 2007



The following toggling Zapruder Film clip of frames #225 and #226 speaks volumes (in favor of one bullet having struck both President Kennedy and Governor Connally just an instant earlier):

The right arms of both victims are moving upward simultaneously -- with JFK moving his arms upward toward the pain point in his throat; and Connally's right hand/arm involuntarily moving upward after his right wrist has just been smashed by Oswald's Bullet #399.


If what we're seeing there in Z225-Z226 ISN'T two men "reacting" to a single bullet hitting them both at the same time....then what IS causing the SIMULTANEOUS MOVEMENT OF THE RIGHT ARMS OF BOTH VICTIMS IN THE LIMOUSINE BETWEEN Z225 AND Z226?

In addition to the Z225-Z226 visual evidence on the Zapruder Film which favors the likelihood of the Single-Bullet Theory being correct, there's also the excellent digital toggling two-frame Z-Film clip pictured below that shows what I believe is the precise moment of impact of Bullet CE399 striking Governor John Connally (at Z224).

At Z224, Connally's right shoulder is pushed slightly forward and downward by (IMO) the bullet from Lee Harvey Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano rifle impacting JBC's upper-right back.

This Z223-Z224 zoomed-in toggling clip also shows, of course, the large lapel/coat movement of Governor Connally's suit jacket at exactly the same time the bullet is passing through JBC's body (Z224):

Like it or not, Abraham Zapruder's home movie (plus lots of other evidence) shows the Single-Bullet Theory to be true. Now, and forever.

David Von Pein
July 2007



  • "The overwhelming evidence is that whenever Kennedy and Connally were hit, or first reacted to being hit, they were both struck by the same bullet." -- Vincent Bugliosi; Page 482 of "Reclaiming History: The Assassination Of President John F. Kennedy" (c.2007)


  • "When you can establish the single-bullet theory by reference to evidence other than the [Zapruder] film, you necessarily know that the film itself cannot, by definition, show something else. .... Since we KNOW Kennedy and Connally were not hit by separate bullets, we know, before we even look at the film, that it CANNOT show otherwise." -- Vincent Bugliosi; Pages 457-458 of "Reclaiming History"


  • "In the final analysis, even if one were forced to rely only on the Zapruder film, we have seen that from the film alone, there is strong evidence of three, and ONLY three shots, fired during the assassination. This is completely consistent with all the physical evidence in the case, and flies in the face of over four decades of allegations made by conspiracy theorists that the film contains conclusive "proof" of two or more assassins." -- Vincent Bugliosi; Page 489 of "Reclaiming History"


  • "With respect to the second shot fired in Dealey Plaza, the "single-bullet THEORY" is an obvious misnomer. Though in its incipient stages it was but a theory, the indisputable evidence is that it is now a proven FACT, a wholly supported conclusion. .... And no sensible mind that is also informed can plausibly make the case that the bullet that struck President Kennedy in the upper right part of his back did not go on to hit Governor Connally." -- Vincent Bugliosi; Pages 489-490 of "Reclaiming History"


  • "At that angle, no matter WHERE it came from [the bullet that struck Governor Connally], it had to pass through the President's body first!" -- Albert E. Jenner, Jr. (Warren Commission Assistant Counsel); February 11, 1967




I think Governor Connally's lapel is moving. It's not just a shadow (as some people have theorized).

Although, due to the apparent movement of that same part of Connally's jacket at a point which I believe was PRIOR to the bullet passing through JBC's body, I've revised my thinking on the "lapel flip" over the years.

I now feel it's quite possible that a combination of the wind (which was gusty that day) and Oswald's CE399 bullet are causing the movement of Connally's lapel that we see in the Zapruder Film.

Something appears to be happening with the right side of John Connally's suit coat in this Z222-Z223 toggling clip:

And then we get the bigger "bulging out" (for lack of a better term) of that same area of Connally's jacket at the precise instant when I think the bullet is striking Connally (at Z224). There is no way this is only a shadow, IMO:

In the final analysis, the "lapel flip" or "jacket bulge" is probably the LEAST compelling evidence on the Z-Film that proves the SBT is occurring at precisely Z224. There are multiple other indicators that show JBC is "reacting" to an external stimulus just after Z224, e.g.:

JBC opens his mouth at Z225 (his mouth is closed at Z224), and a startled (or pained) look comes over his face; his shoulders "hunch" up, or flinch, starting at exactly Z225.

This "hunching" is extremely important, IMO, because it's showing us an involuntary reaction on the part of the Governor. So we don't need to depend only on the CLOTHING (the lapel) of Connally to prove the SBT. Connally's OWN BODY is telling us that the bullet has just pierced him. Just look:

Here's another clip showing the very noticeable (but often overlooked) "hunching" of Connally's shoulders and the distressed look that crosses his face at Z225:

And then there's also the very important "hat flip" of JBC's, which begins just an instant later, at Z226:

I challenge anyone to look at that last Zapruder Film clip above a few times in a row and arrive at the following conclusion:

There's NO WAY that President Kennedy and Governor Connally were struck by the same bullet! No way!

Anyone who could utter the above words after watching that Z-Film clip must either be blind or closely related to Oliver Stone.

David Von Pein
April 2010




The following snippet from Prof. John McAdams' website should be required reading for all anti-SBT conspiracy theorists. My guess is that very few people are aware of this important test that was done to simulate the condition of a Mannlicher-Carcano bullet after if had struck a wrist bone at reduced velocity (just like with Governor Connally's wrist in Dallas):

Quoting from John McAdams' website:

"When a bullet just like Commission Exhibit 399 is fired through a human wrist bone at 2,000 [feet] per second, it is almost certain to be badly mangled. But when CE 399 hit Connally's wrist it had been slowed by transiting Kennedy's torso and tumbling through Connally's chest. When it finally hit the hard radius bone, it was traveling about 1,000 feet per second. Dr. Martin Fackler, President of the International Wound Ballistics Association, fired a round identical to Oswald's bullet through a human wrist at 1,100 feet per second. Here is the resulting bullet:"

[End McAdams' Site Quote.]

As can be seen, the test bullet in the picture shown above looks absolutely perfect and pristine....and this is AFTER the bullet had been fired through a human wrist bone at a velocity of 1,100 feet per second.

Another good visual demonstration of how tough a Mannlicher-Carcano/Western Cartridge bullet is (like the ones Oswald fired into Kennedy and Connally on 11/22/63) can be seen in the 2004 Discovery Channel documentary "JFK: BEYOND THE MAGIC BULLET", when a MC/WCC bullet is fired into a large wooden log. The bullet penetrated several feet of the log before it stopped. The missile was then dug out of the log, and it looked perfect. It looked like it hadn't even been fired at all. Dr. John Lattimer performed a similar "wood" test using Carcano ammunition as well.

Now, when conspiracy theorists then come back with their usual kneejerk response to that test with this inquiry -- If CE399 could remain so undamaged, then why did the head-shot bullet act so differently?

That question might be puzzling to some people, but regardless of the fact that is has some theorists scratching their heads, that question was answered years ago via tests that had MC/WCC bullets being fired into actual human skulls to find out how such a bullet will behave.

Dr. Alfred Olivier did such a "skull" test in 1964 for the Warren Commission, and Dr. Lattimer performed similar independent tests of his own in the 1970s. And the results were strikingly similar to what happened in Dallas in 1963:

David Von Pein
July 2009




A person interested in the JFK assassination asked me this question via e-mail in December 2009:

"The big question for me is: How did the pristine bullet pierce so many layers of clothing and flesh, bone, etc. and emerge so clean? If someone can answer this then I will be sure Oswald is the killer."

My response:

That question is one that nobody can really answer with 100% certainty. But one thing is a certainty: CE399 is a bullet that was fired in Lee Harvey Oswald's rifle, and it is a bullet that was found inside the hospital where the two limo victims (JFK & John Connally) were taken on 11/22/63.*

* = Notwithstanding, of course, the continual claims by conspiracy theorists of bullet-planting or substituting with respect to Commission Exhibit 399. But please do consider this important fact: Both the Warren Commission AND the HSCA (comprised chiefly of lawyers) had no problem at all accepting CE399 as the bullet that went through the bodies of both Kennedy and Connally.

Shouldn't the above fact carry at least SOME weight with conspiracy theorists when it comes to the subject of: IS CE399 A LEGITIMATE BULLET IN THE KENNEDY ASSASSINATION?

Or do most conspiracy theorists actually and truly believe that BOTH the Warren Commission AND the House Select Committee on Assassinations (which existed 14 years apart from one another) were so evil and so corrupt (or were just plain stupid, in unison) that each of those official agencies would accept the very important piece of physical evidence known as CE399 as a REAL PIECE of evidence, even though (according to many conspiracy theorists) that bullet never touched even one of the victims on November 22, 1963?

That's food for CE399 thought...isn't it?

Let me add one more thing regarding Bullet CE399 and its "clean" status (this being a quote from lawyer and author Vincent Bugliosi):

"One can only wonder why Commission Exhibit No. 399 did not have any blood residuum on it. My only guess is that the blood traces that must have been on it were removed by someone early on at the...crime lab or elsewhere almost as a matter of course. In all the evidence bullets I handled in court in murder cases during my prosecutorial career, none had any visible blood on them. ....

"Interestingly, [the FBI's Robert] Frazier testified that with respect to the two main bullet fragments found in the presidential limousine [CE567 and CE569], "there was a very slight residue of blood or some other material adhering, but it did not interfere with the examination. It was wiped off to clean up the bullet for examination"."
-- Vincent Bugliosi; Page 425 of "Reclaiming History" (Endnotes)(c.2007)

David Von Pein
December 2009




As can be seen in Warren Commission Exhibit #903 (shown below), the "Single-Bullet Theory" trajectory works just fine. In fact, it works absolutely perfectly. Which would be virtually impossible if MULTIPLE bullets had actually done the damage to the two victims (JFK & John Connally) that the Warren Commission said was very likely caused by only one single bullet (CE399).

And the pointer/rod in Exhibit 903 is just where this autopsy photo of John Kennedy's back shows the wound to be located, with the exit wound exactly at the "tie knot" via CE903, just exactly where JFK sustained damage from the flight of a bullet:

Below is another picture that was also taken on 5/24/64 in Dallas, showing another "SBT" view, similar to CE903 (taken from the other side of the car). Click on this image for a larger (and crystal-clear) view of the photo:

In the "opposite angle" photo above, Arlen Specter's pointer is positioned slightly above the chalk mark representing the bullet wound in JFK's upper back, but if the coat of the JFK stand-in had been "bunched-up" on his back (as President Kennedy's suit coat was when he was shot), then the chalk mark on the stand-in's back would have been slightly HIGHER in that photograph above, and would have likely merged perfectly with the position of Specter's pointer/rod.

And look at the angle -- DOWNWARD (17 DEGREES), FROM BACK TO FRONT. Without a doubt.

Also: Some conspiracists attempt to use this photo to discredit the SBT (which is a different "opposite angle" picture from the one shown above, but is a photo that also shows Arlen Specter holding his pointer a little above where he is holding it in CE903).

But the CTers who claim that there something is "fishy" or "misleading" about that photograph are doing so without ever having determined exactly WHAT THAT OTHER PHOTO IS, and for what exact purpose it was taken, etc.*

* = Oh, I know it was taken the same day as CE903....but it's unfair to say that it depicts the Warren Commission's SBT trajectory precisely, because it is NOT an official Warren Commission exhibit like CE903.

Let's listen to the testimony of the man who took the photo we see in CE903 (Lyndal Shaneyfelt).....

ARLEN SPECTER -- "I now hand you a photograph which has been marked as Commission Exhibit No. 903 and ask you if you know who the photographer was?"

LYNDAL L. SHANEYFELT -- "Yes; I took this photograph."

MR. SPECTER -- "When was that photograph taken?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "It was taken Sunday afternoon, May 24, 1964."

MR. SPECTER -- "Is there a white string which is apparent in the background of that photograph?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "That is correct."

MR. SPECTER -- "What is the angle of declination of that string?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "That string was placed along the wall by the surveyor at an angle of 17 degrees-43'-30''." ....

MR. SPECTER -- "Did the surveyor make that placement in your presence?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "He did."

MR. SPECTER -- "Were the stand-ins for President Kennedy and Governor Connally positioned in the same relative positions as those occupied by President Kennedy and Governor Connally depicted in the Zapruder films?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "Yes; these positions were approximately the position of the President and Governor Connally in the Zapruder films in the area around frame 225 as they go behind the signboard and as they emerge from the signboard."

MR. SPECTER -- "Was the rod which is held in that photograph positioned at an angle as closely parallel to the white string as it could be positioned?"


MR. SPECTER -- "And through what positions did that rod pass?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "The rod passed through a position on the back of the stand-in for the President at a point approximating that of the entrance wound, exited along about the knot of the tie or the button of the coat or button of the shirt, and the end of the rod was inserted in the entrance hole on the back of Governor Connally's coat which was being worn by the stand-in for Governor Connally."

MR. SPECTER -- "And was Governor Connally's stand-in seated in the position where the point of exit would have been below the right nipple at the approximate point described by Governor Connally's doctors?"

MR. SHANEYFELT -- "That is correct."


Anti-SBT conspiracy theorists simply cannot fight the "SBT perfection" that exists in Commission Exhibit 903.

As mentioned by Shaneyfelt in his Warren Commission testimony, the stand-in representing Governor Connally is wearing the same jacket that Connally wore on 11/22/63....and that pointer being held by Mr. Specter, which is coming out of JFK's tie knot, is being placed right into the exact bullet hole in that jacket in CE903.

CE903 shows:

1.) Downward (back-to-front) angle of the bullet path (17 degrees) = Perfect.

2.) Upper-back JFK wound = Perfect.

3.) JFK exit wound at tie knot = Perfect.

4.) Entry wound on JBC's back = Perfect (with Specter's metal rod being jammed into the same hole on JBC's exact jacket where a bullet just happened to penetrate Connally's suit jacket on 11/22/63, by gosh!).

5.) Exit wound on JBC's chest (under right nipple) = Perfect via CE903 as well.

Sum Total.....

No "zig-zag" path.
No "magic" bullet.
No "SBT conspiracy".

In short: CE903 = S.B.T. PERFECTION!



David Von Pein
March 2007




The Warren Commission, in late 1964, issued its 888-page Final Report on the assassination of President John Kennedy. The Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had murdered JFK, and in so doing, had acted alone. Also within that report rests one of the most controversial so-called "theories" in history -- the "Single-Bullet Theory".

The "SBT" has been battered from proverbial pillar to post by conspiracy theorists for multiple decades now since JFK's tragic death in 1963. And it's been an undeserved bad rap, too, in my opinion. Because the SBT is almost certainly the only conceivable (accurate) scenario to explain the injuries sustained by victims JFK and John B. Connally in Dallas on 11/22/63.

Lacking the SBT, so many weird and incredible and, frankly, impossible, things would have had to have taken place in Dealey Plaza, it would make a Max Fleischer cartoon seem believable by comparison.

Many people ("CTers" by specific categorization) seem to think that the holes in JFK's clothing are rock-solid "proof" that the Single-Bullet Conclusion is worthy of only disdain. They'll claim the holes in Kennedy's coat and shirt were "too low" to accommodate the accuracy of the SBT scenario.

But, it must be remembered that the JFK jacket hole in dispute is a hole on the BACK side of President Kennedy's suit jacket, not the front side (with the front part of the jacket, of course, much more likely to move around with ease).

Therefore, since the portion of the coat/jacket on JFK's back isn't going to be moving around like a coat lapel at the front, the coat hole lining up with the hole in his shirt is understandable, IMO.

The bottom line of this argument is -- CTers have taken one single aspect of the "whole" that makes up the SBT scenario (JFK's clothing holes on his back) and then they have seemingly chosen to ignore all of the surrounding evidence that says the SBT is the ONLY way the shooting could have occurred.

Plus -- I'm thinking it's quite possible that JFK's back brace might have aided in keeping those two layers of clothing (shirt and jacket) TOGETHER to some extent...more so than if he wasn't wearing the back brace. I'll admit straight away, that this is just simply a wild guess on my part (but CTers do nothing BUT "guess" 24/7 re. many aspects of the JFK murder case; so I suppose an LNer can do it on occasion as well). But it seems within the bounds of reason. I've never worn a brace like that on my back, and don't know for sure how it might "bind" or affect the clothing of the wearer of such an item. But it might have had some effect on the clothing to a small, or not so small, degree.

But a discrepancy in the President's clothing holes pales in overall significance when compared to the things that are "out of whack" re. the pro-CT side of the SBT equation.

Things like:

Disappearing bullets.....Pictures that have to be faked.....Three autopsy doctors who have to be falsifying official documents.....And three gunmen performing the impossible at-the-same-time task of shooting JFK in such a way to even come remotely close to being able to say (later) that these THREE shots all "line up" to a "Single Bullet" possibility.

Even WITH clothing holes that cannot be completely reconciled to the square inch to align with JFK's back (skin) wound, the SBT is far, far ahead of ANY conspiracy-slanted substitute for it. In fact, I've yet to hear a good, sound, logical, based-on-the-evidence "CT substitute" for the Single-Bullet Theory. I wonder if we'll ever be treated to such a revelation by conspiracy authors/promoters? Unlikely to happen, IMO. Because no such "believable" CT version of the shooting exists.

CTers, IMO, still haven't a leg to wobble on with respect to the SBT. Because virtually everything "fits" re. the SBT for the Lone-Assassin side.

But CTers, in trying to debunk the Single-Bullet Theory, are attempting to do so, even though the conspiracists have......

1.) No bullets where there most certainly ought to be bullets found (and THREE of them at that, discounting CE399 of course, because no self-respecting CTer would dare think that that bullet was ACTUALLY part of the "real" shooting).

2.) No damage inside JFK's back/neck where there certainly should be some degree of damage if two whole bullets had just stopped inside the President as if they'd hit a brick wall.

3.) No good, rooted-in-logic explanation for why Governor Connally's back wound was "oblong" in shape if that wound had been caused by an unimpeded bullet in flight.

4.) No real good explanation (at all) as to why on Earth those two missiles just stopped inside Jack Kennedy's body without exiting. (Two "duds"? Or two "misfires"? TWO?? Come now. What are the odds?)

5.) Not a single witness saying they saw an additional non-Oswald shooter.

6.) No proof whatsoever that the Official Autopsy Report has been "faked" or "phonied up" by the autopsy doctors (all three of whom signed off on said document).

7.) No proof at all that the autopsy photos and X-rays have been "faked" in some manner to "hide" the true wounds.

8.) No proof at all to show that the 19 different HSCA panel members who authenticated the autopsy photos/X-rays all lied when they said this in 1978:

  • "From the reports of the experts' analyses of the autopsy photographs and X-rays, the evidence indicates that the autopsy photographs and X-rays were taken of President Kennedy at the time of his autopsy and that they had not been altered in any manner."
9.) And to repeat a variation of #1 just for amplification -- WHERE DID ALL THOSE BULLETS GO? WHERE? Can some conspiracy theorist please provide the waiting world with the answer to that very important question? I, for one, would certainly like to hear it. It should be an amusing answer, if nothing else.

David Von Pein
March 2006




I think everyone would probably agree that part of the problem that exists with respect to lining up JFK's upper-back wound and JFK's throat wound is the fact that there is no specific autopsy photograph in existence that can readily illustrate the relationship between those two key wounds at the same time.

But I think that the (turned sideways) autopsy photo shown below of President Kennedy does a pretty good job of accomplishing that task (although, of course, we still can't physically see the hole in JFK's upper back here):

Via the above photo, it's very easy to illustrate the fact that the back wound was certainly well ABOVE the wound in the front of the neck/throat. Because if a line is drawn straight across from the throat wound toward JFK's back in the above photograph....where would that place a wound on the "back" portion of John Kennedy's body? Certainly not anywhere near the "neck". And also nowhere near where we find the actual upper-back wound via the autopsy photo of Kennedy's back.*

* = And if you want to buy the House Select Committee on Assassination's [HSCA] junk about the back wound being anatomically LOWER than the throat wound, there's even a bigger differential, which would place the back wound practically in the MIDDLE portion of JFK's back...which is just silly.

Just compare it to this autopsy picture:

The "crimp" in JFK's neck is a good guide to use in both of the above autopsy photographs. The "crimp" appears to me to be located approx. 3 inches above the wound. So we need to estimate approx. 3 inches below the "neck crimp" in this photo.

Where would the wound be located based on that crimp estimate? Certainly not anywhere NEAR the very BOTTOM of that picture (which is where the wound would have to be in order for it to be at throat wound level).

This is certainly not rocket science.

The SBT works. Period.

David Von Pein
January 2007

JULY 2009 EDIT --- As an addendum to the above pictures, the image below also serves as a useful photographic aid when discussing the locations of President Kennedy's upper-back and throat wounds, and it couldn't be more obvious (yet again) that the bullet hole in JFK's upper back was located above the bullet hole in his throat:




The sum total of evidence surrounding Governor John B. Connally's wounds, and the amount of bullet lead that was deposited inside him on 11/22/63 (which was "microscopically" tiny in total weight), and Bullet CE399 and its condition all suggest that CE399 was inside Connally's body on November 22, and almost certainly was tumbling like an acrobat on steroids during its assault on JBC's rib and wrist and thigh.

It almost certainly struck the 5th rib sideways (hence, the flattening of the bullet) and went on to hit the wrist bone on its END (i.e., the exposed lead) portion of the bullet....hence, a small amount of lead was scraped off the bullet by JBC's wrist (which was lead/metal that was extruded out the open bottom of the missile AFTER striking the rib but BEFORE striking the wrist).

The bullet, now almost totally spent, travels its last few inches into Connally's left thigh, barely breaking the skin, but not hitting his femur beneath the skin.

The bullet is then jarred loose from the shallow thigh wound at some point, falling (probably) into his pants leg for a period of time...eventually ending up on his stretcher...where it rolls/slides under the stretcher's rubber mat (partially hiding it; hence, nobody sees the damn thing in the ER or in the OR).

It's quite possible that Connally's position on the stretcher at the time the bullet did its little dive under the mat was such that the weight of Connally's large frame possibly PUSHED UP a portion of the end of the rubber mat, leaving a gap between the metal stretcher and the mat. And when Connally was then removed from the stretcher, the mat (now free from the weight of Connally's body) falls flat and even again with the metal stretcher, covering (at least partially) Bullet #CE399.

Yes, that above scenario is just a guess on my part (quite obviously). But it seems like a fairly logical guess, given the sum total of evidence that indicates Bullet 399 DID, indeed, fall from Connally's thigh wound onto his stretcher while he was lying on that stretcher inside Parkland Hospital that Friday afternoon. And also given the fact that not a single person saw the bullet on the stretcher prior to Tomlinson (or heard the tinkling of metal rolling against the metal parts of the stretcher as it was being moved from the OR to the second-floor elevator area).

The stretcher (with bullet under mat) is pushed out of the 2nd-Floor Operating Room and into an elevator being operated that day by Parkland's Senior Engineer, Darrell C. Tomlinson.

Tomlinson takes the stretcher down to the first floor, where it's taken off the elevator and placed in the hallway next to young patient Ronnie Fuller's stretcher.

Tomlinson then returns to his elevator and hospital duties for a period of time....making at least 2 additional trips up to higher floors in the hospital before finally noticing that one of the two first-floor stretchers has been moved by someone who entered the men's room located off of that same hallway.

Tomlinson pushes the stretcher up against the wall again to clear it out of the middle of the aisle/hallway, and hears a metallic sound on the stretcher he's just pushed against the wall.

Out rolls Commission Exhibit #399, out from under the pad/mat on the stretcher, where it was partially hidden (or possibly completely out of viewable sight for a time)....

....And the never-ending controversy surrounding this little piece of metal and lead had begun.

David Von Pein
September 2007



Warren Commission Exhibit #CE399 (the "Stretcher Bullet" found by Darrell Tomlinson inside Parkland Hospital prior to 2:00 PM on the afternoon of November 22nd, 1963) has been a major focus of controversy since JFK's murder in Dallas.

Conspiracy advocates claim that the bullet's missing grains of lead (which totalled approximately 2.2 grains, when an "average"/"median" weight of an unfired Western Cartridge Company/Mannlicher-Carcano 6.5mm bullet like CE399 is used as a comparison) are less than the weight of the bullet fragments that were discovered inside the body of Texas Governor John B. Connally on 11/22/63.

But is this a reasonable conclusion for anyone to come to? In other words, did Governor Connally really have MORE than approximately 2.2 grains of bullet lead/fragments inside his body prior to being operated on by Parkland physicians on November 22nd?

Well, let's examine the official record concerning that important question.....

With respect to Connally's wrist injury, there is the following Warren Commission testimony from the doctor at Dallas' Parkland Hospital who was in charge of that particular wound (Dr. Charles F. Gregory):

ARLEN SPECTER -- "Will you describe, as specifically as you can, what those metallic fragments are by way of size and shape, sir?"

DR. CHARLES GREGORY -- "I would identify these fragments as varying from five-tenths of a millimeter in diameter to approximately two millimeters in diameter. And each fragment is no more than a half millimeter in thickness. They would represent, in lay terms, flakes...flakes of metal."

MR. SPECTER -- "What would your estimate be as to their weight in total?"

DR. GREGORY -- "I would estimate that they would be weighed in micrograms, which is [a] very small amount of weight. I don't know how to reduce it to ordinary equivalents for you. It is the kind of weighing that requires a micro-adjustable scale; which means that it is something less than the weight of a postage stamp."

MR. SPECTER (Later in Gregory's testimony session) -- "For the purpose of this consideration, I am interested to know whether the metal which you found in the wrist was of sufficient size so that the bullet which passed through the wrist could not have emerged virtually completely intact or with 158 grains intact, or whether the portions of the metallic fragments were so small that that would be consistent with having virtually the entire 6.5-millimeter bullet emerge?"

DR. GREGORY -- "Well, considering the small volume of metal as seen by X-ray, and the very small dimensions of the metal which was recovered, I think several such fragments could have been flaked off of a total missile mass without reducing its volume greatly."


Regarding Governor Connally's chest injuries:

ARLEN SPECTER -- "Was any metallic substance from the bullet left in the thoracic cage as a result of the passage of the bullet through the Governor's body?"

DR. ROBERT SHAW -- "No. We saw no evidence of any metallic material in the X-ray that we had of the chest, and we found none during the operation."


Regarding Connally's superficial thigh wound:

DR. CHARLES GREGORY -- "A fragment of metal, again microscopic, measuring about five-tenths of a millimeter by two millimeters, lies just beneath the skin, about a half-inch on the medial aspect of the thigh."

ARLEN SPECTER -- "What is your best estimate of the weight of that metallic fragment?"

DR. GREGORY -- "This again would be in micrograms, postage stamp weight thereabouts. Not much more than that."


In addition, we have this very interesting comment from Dr. Gregory:

DR. GREGORY -- "I think again that bullet, Exhibit 399, could very well have struck the thigh in a reverse fashion and have shed a bit of its lead core into the fascia immediately beneath the skin, yet never have penetrated the thigh sufficiently so that it eventually was dislodged and was found in the clothing. I would like to add to that we were disconcerted by not finding a missile at all. Here was our patient with three discernible wounds, and no missile within him of sufficient magnitude to account for them, and we suggested that someone ought to search his belongings and other areas where he had been to see if it could be identified or found, rather."


Therefore, in total, we have the following "Connally Bullet Fragments Inventory":

1.) The very small fragments removed from Governor Connally's wrist (of microscopic "postage stamp" weight). The preoperative X-ray of Connally's wrist (CE690) shows the fragments and reflects the very small nature of all the fragments that were deposited by the bullet in the wrist (remember, that X-ray is PREoperative, so all TOTAL fragments are visible in the wrist).

CE691 (another preoperative X-ray) shows the wrist fragments from a different angle. Again, the fragments are very small in size.

2.) Zero metallic fragments discovered in Governor Connally's chest/thorax. CE681 is the 11/22/63 chest X-ray of JBC.

3.) One extremely-tiny bullet fragment in JBC's thigh (again "postage stamp" type of weight). CE694 shows the thigh (preoperative).


In Addition:

Dr. John Lattimer did an experiment with a WCC/MC bullet (just like CE399), whereby he squeezed the bullet in a vise to extrude 2 grains of lead from the base of the missile (to match the approximate amount of lead that was missing from CE399, which, in point of fact, was slightly more than 2 grains).

Lattimer's two grains of Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead yielded 41 separate small, sliced fragments (any one of which looks larger than ANY of the fragments that were deposited in John Connally's body by the bullet that struck him on November 22, 1963).

Have a look:

Via Dr. Lattimer's book:

  • "Some critics have contended that the four bullet fragments in Governor Connally are too many to be accounted for by the two grains of lead missing from bullet 399. In our experiments we were able to make forty-one such fragments from the two-grain piece of lead that extruded from our test bullet. It can safely be said, therefore, that four fragments are by no means too many to be accounted for by the two grains missing from bullet 399." -- John K. Lattimer; Pages 276-277 of "Kennedy And Lincoln" (c.1980)

David Von Pein's review of "Kennedy And Lincoln"


Given the above evidence, which verifies beyond all reasonable doubt that the total amount of bullet fragments that existed in all of John Connally's body on 11/22/63 most certainly did not (and COULD NOT) have exceeded the missing 2.2 grains of Bullet CE399, I cannot understand why so many JFK conspiracy proponents continue to soldier on in their efforts to prove that Bullet CE399 is a missile that could not possibly have been inside Governor Connally based on the "Amount Of Missing Lead" factor.

But, then too, I've never been able to figure out the (il)logic of CTers as a whole either. So, there's nothing new there I guess. ;)

David Von Pein
January 2007


ADDENDUM TO THE ABOVE ARTICLE (directly related to the discussion concerning the Connally metal fragments; the following text comes from a portion of my full-length review of Vincent Bugliosi's 2007 book on the JFK assassination, "Reclaiming History"):

[Quoting Bugliosi]:

  • "In support of his position, which I concur with, that the bullet fragments removed from Connally's wrist did not weigh more than the 2.4 grains lost from the stretcher bullet [CE399], Gerald Posner writes in "Case Closed" that Dr. Charles Gregory testified before the Warren Commission that the bullet fragments he removed from Connally's wrist were "flakes of metal" weighing "something less than the weight of a postage stamp." But Dr. Gregory was not referring to the bullet fragments he removed from Connally's wrist, which definitely were not flakes of metal, but to the bullet fragments left in Connally's wrist, which were never removed yet show up on X-rays." -- Vincent T. Bugliosi; Page 441 of "Reclaiming History's" endnotes

DVP: I'm very nearly certain that Mr. Bugliosi is incorrect re. the above statement. Because when we look at Dr. Gregory's WC testimony there is no question at all that when Gregory said this to WC counsel Arlen Specter --- "I would estimate that they [the metal fragments] would be weighed in micrograms, which is [a] very small amount of weight. .... It is the kind of weighing that requires a micro-adjustable scale, which means that it is something less than the weight of a postage stamp" --- Gregory was specifically referring to the fragments which are visible on two PRE-operative X-rays taken of Governor Connally's wrist (CE690 and CE691).

Which means that Gregory was referring to ALL of the metal fragments (or "flakes") that were in Connally's wrist BEFORE Gregory ever operated on the Governor to retrieve any bullet fragments.

Via comparison, when looking at CE692 and CE693 (which are POST-operative wrist X-rays which were taken after Connally was operated on), it can easily be determined that Exhibits 692 and 693 depict FEWER fragments within the X-ray than are shown in 690 and 691.

It's possible that Dr. Gregory misspoke when he said that ALL of the fragments visible in Exhibits 690 and 691 represented only "flakes of metal", which is positively what he said, and, as I mentioned, he was definitely referring to the PRE-operative wrist X-rays, even though Gregory said that he, himself, removed "two or three" of the largest fragments from Connally's wrist, and had a chance to determine at that time whether the term "flakes of metal" really applied to those removed fragments.

In any event, that is what the official Warren Commission record reveals with respect Dr. Gregory's testimony in 1964 when he was looking directly at CE690 and CE691.

And to my (layperson's) eyes, the visible hunks of metal that can be seen in 690 and 691 certainly don't look very big at all. Perhaps the word "flakes" would, indeed, describe them fairly well (at least when looking at the X-rays only).

Later in Gregory's WC testimony -- after Arlen Specter asked, "Approximately how large were those fragments {that were removed from Connally's wrist}, Dr. Gregory?" -- we find these words being spoken by Gregory:

"Rather thin...their greatest dimension would probably not exceed one-eighth of an inch. They were very small."

Another semi-important point to all of this talk about the size of Governor Connally's wrist fragments (which is a point I don't think Mr. Bugliosi mentions anywhere in his book) refers to a portion of Dr. Gregory's testimony where he, in effect, is saying that ALL of the fragments that were seen in Connally's wrist (INCLUDING THE TWO OR THREE FRAGMENTS THAT WERE REMOVED FROM THE GOVERNOR'S WRIST) were located during surgery "by chance", and ALL of these metal fragments could have been left inside Connally's body without causing the Governor further physical problems in the future.

Here is exactly what Dr. Gregory said to the Warren Commission regarding this matter:

"We know from experience that small flakes of metal of this kind do not ordinarily produce difficulty in the future, but that the extensive dissection required to find them may produce...consequences and so we choose to leave them inside unless we chance upon them. And on this occasion, those bits of metal recovered were simply found by chance in the course of removing necrotized material [i.e., dead bodily tissue]."

David Von Pein
July 2007



Conspiracy theorists have absolutely no place to go (via logic and common sense, that is) with ANY of their arguments regarding CE399, or regarding their arguments about a purported "pointy-nosed" bullet, etc.

Because if CTers want to say that CE399 was actually the bullet found at Parkland by [Darrell] Tomlinson (whether it was a "planted" bullet or not), then those same CTers are forced to jettison one of their favorite arguments -- i.e., that Tomlinson, et al, failed to identify CE399 as the stretcher bullet DUE TO THE FACT THAT CE399 WASN'T THE REAL STRETCHER BULLET FOUND BY TOMLINSON.

And if conspiracists wish to say (as many of them do) that a "pointy"-tipped bullet was actually seen by Tomlinson and [O.P.] Wright, et al, on November 22 at Parkland Hospital...then where does that argument take the CTers?

Answer -- Deep into "Absurdville"! That's where.


Because: If a "pointy" bullet WAS the "real" stretcher bullet found by Tomlinson, then that means one of the following three things must certainly be correct and true....

1.) The "pointy" bullet was the one and only bullet that did the damage to John B. Connally (and the best evidence, by far, is that just ONE single bullet struck Connally, causing all of his wounds).

But if #1 here is true...then the CTers must abandon one of their very favorite gripes: i.e., ANY bullet that did that much damage to John Connally must have been pretty banged up by the end of the day.

But if Tomlinson saw a "pointy"-nosed bullet, then that bullet was certainly in pretty decent shape, right? And the POINTY NOSE of the bullet wasn't even crushed! (Otherwise, how did Tomlinson, et al, see any "pointy" nose on the missile?)

Also: It's fairly obvious that the discrepancy surrounding the stretcher bullet noted by Tomlinson, Wright, [Secret Service agent Richard] Johnsen (et al) is NOT a discrepancy with respect to the GENERAL AMOUNT OF DAMAGE that was done to the bullet.

It's obvious from everyone's testimony on this matter that the bullet Tomlinson found on a Parkland stretcher was an INTACT bullet; that is, a bullet that wasn't banged up very much at all.

Or do some conspiracy promoters want to now purport that the people who later failed to positively identify CE399 REALLY saw a banged-all-to-hell, mushroomed, and very damaged bullet...but they failed to mention that fact to anyone, ever?!

2.) The bullet Darrell Tomlinson picked up was a "PLANTED" bullet, but was not CE399, and then 399 was inserted into the record to replace the "real" stretcher bullet.


And if some CTers want to think the bullet was planted, but Oswald WASN'T really being set up as a lone patsy....I'd then ask: Huh? (Because if Oswald wasn't being framed, then why was there any need to plant ANY bullet at all inside Parkland?)

This whole #2 option is just too kooky for even most conspiracy-giddy kooks of the world. (Isn't it?)

3.) The bullet Darrell Tomlinson found on a stretcher at Parkland wasn't even connected (in ANY fashion; "planted" or otherwise) to the JFK assassination or to Governor Connally's wounds. Perhaps it really did come from the little boy's stretcher (Ronny Fuller's). But, then again, was young Ronald Fuller SHOT BY A RIFLE BULLET on November 22nd? I don't think he was. Which means there's a problem here too.

But the logical observation associated with option #3 that needs to be uttered aloud is -- If it had been later learned that the stretcher bullet had really been connected to Fuller (or some other case, totally unconnected to the JFK/JBC case), then it would turn into a "So what?" situation. Because why would the authorities feel it necessary to tie in a bullet to the JFK case that legitimately was not connected to the Kennedy case in any way? That's just....dumb.

So, any way things are sliced, many conspiracy theorists are forced to abandon at least one of their favorite theories with respect to Bullet CE399. Because when a little ordinary common sense is applied to the conversation surrounding the stretcher bullet, CTers don't have a leg to stand on.

In short, conspiracy theorists are, by necessity, forced to either accept the obvious truth about the stretcher bullet (which is: CE399 came out of Lee Harvey Oswald's rifle on 11/22/63 and wounded both Kennedy and Connally)....or they are forced to look like total idiots by purporting theories that don't make much sense at all.

And many of those conspiracists are also forced to spout theories that completely CONTRADICT other theories they have been married to for decades.

Accepting the truth surrounding Bullet CE399 is easy. But accepting ANY of the conspiracy-tinged replacement theories revolving around that bullet is virtually impossible.

David Von Pein
September 2007




[Governor John] Connally's right arm [which was attached to the same wrist that was wounded during the Dealey Plaza shooting] starts flying aimlessly UP then DOWN at Zapruder Film frame #226, just an instant after it was struck at Z224, indicating an involuntary movement of that right arm (wrist) at that point.

Or do [conspiracy theorists] think Connally had a desire to willfully jerk his right arm around in such an odd way just an instant BEFORE that SAME WRIST was hit by a bullet? That's just...frankly...nuts.

And the "arm/hat flip", which begins at Z226, is one of the primary reasons I can say with a good deal of certainty that Connally was struck at precisely Z224 by the ONE AND ONLY BULLET that hit him on November 22, which is just an eyeblink ahead of the involuntary "arm/hat flip" movement.

And a victim's involuntary reaction to a gunshot wound can occur, according to many doctors, "almost simultaneously with the injuries". [Via 7 HSCA 179; excerpt provided below.]

And that's what we find with respect to both JFK's and Governor Connally's visible reactions at Z225.*

* = Bearing in mind, of course, that President Kennedy is technically hidden by that damn Stemmons Freeway sign at the precise moment when I believe the SBT bullet is going through him at Z224. But such an "almost simultaneous" involuntary reaction with respect to Governor Connally specifically is, IMO, being demonstrated very clearly, and in full living color, on Abraham Zapruder's home movie between frames 224 and 226.

  • "The [HSCA's forensic pathology] panel notes the interval between the observable reactions of the President and the Governor at the time of their injuries, as seen in the Zapruder film. Some observers have contended that the interval is too long to permit the conclusion that a single bullet struck both men. The majority of the panel believes that the interval is consistent with the single-bullet theory. At issue is the time delay between bullet impact and the observable reactions of each man to his injury, which in turn is determined by many factors, including whether or not their reactions were voluntary or involuntary. If involuntary, they would have occurred almost simultaneously with the injuries. If voluntary, there is often a slight delay in reacting." -- HSCA Volume 7; Page 179

To the people who think that Governor Connally was hit EARLIER than Zapruder frame 224 (such as Vincent Bugliosi), I'd have to ask -- What are the odds of Connally's wrist performing its little "Hat Dance" just two frames AFTER Z224 if he had really been hit back at approximately Z210 (Mr. Bugliosi's favored timeline) or Z190 (the HSCA's SBT frame number)?

Again, the odds are incredibly low (IMO) that Connally would have been hit as early as Z190 or Z210 and then (via an obvious INVOLUNTARY reaction) start performing that "hat flip" as late as Z226. Such an early SBT hit does not fit Connally's reactions at all.

The same thing applies to Governor Connally's "open-mouthed grimace", which I see occurring at Z225 exactly [seen in the toggling Z-Film clip shown above], with no signs of ANY distress on his face at Z223 or Z224 at all (although I could argue that the BEGINNINGS of the "distressed" look are starting to form on Connally's face at Z224)...with this lack of any kind of discernible look of "distress" as late as Z223 being absolutely incredible, in my opinion, IF he had, in fact, been hit many frames EARLIER than Z224.

Plus: there's the "shoulder hunching" and the "shoulder drop" of Connally's right shoulder at Z224-Z226. All of these physical movements (which are obviously INvoluntary movements occurring on the part of Mr. Connally; that fact couldn't BE more obvious, in my opinion) are occurring within 1 to 3 frames of a Z224 SBT hit.

If Governor Connally had been hit as early as Z190 or Z210, these "Z224 to Z226" involuntary reactions we're seeing on the Zapruder Film would be happening a full second (or close to TWO full seconds per the HSCA) after Connally had actually been struck by Bullet CE399. Which, in my opinion, is too long.

Also -- Connally's reactions that we see occurring at Z224 to Z226 would be off the "incredible" scale (in favor of "Too Incredible Of A Coincidence To Be Believed For Even One Second!") if Governor Connally had actually been hit by a bullet much LATER than Z224, which is what most conspiracy theorists seem to believe, with many CTers thinking that JBC wasn't hit until Z236 or Z238.

And some of the wackier kooks even want to believe that Connally wasn't hit by any bullet until AFTER the fatal shot struck President Kennedy in the head!

I guess, per those crazy CTers, the Governor DID decide to VOLUNTARILY jerk that right arm up and down very rapidly (in the space of only 3 or 4 Z-Film frames) just PRIOR to that same arm being struck by a bullet.

Go figure. ~shrug~

David Von Pein
December 2007




The huge controversy surrounding Warren Commission Exhibit Number 399 [aka "The Stretcher Bullet"] is only "huge" because of the conspiracy advocates of the world who want to think that somebody placed that bullet into the official record of the murder case of an assassinated U.S. President in order to frame Lee Harvey Oswald for that murder.

But such a notion is just plain silly. It's also a notion that is very extraordinary in nature. And is there really and truly a good reason in this case to believe in any type of "extraordinary" theory with respect to Bullet CE399 (i.e., a conspiracy theory that has some unknown person or persons placing CE399 into the official record of the JFK case in a desire to frame Lee Harvey Oswald for the President's murder), when so many additional, corroborative pieces of physical and circumstantial evidence ALSO lead down that same "IT WAS OSWALD" path?

Given this "corroboration" regarding the evidence in the case, the theory that has Bullet 399 being "tainted" in some fashion is highly improbable (even if the bullet did, indeed, have a very weak "chain of custody" or "chain of possession") -- Because CE399 is a bullet which FITS TOGETHER WITH A LOT OF OTHER EVIDENCE CONNECTED WITH PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S ASSASSINATION.

CE399 is a bullet that came out of the VERY SAME GUN that is also positively linked to the bullet fragments found in the Presidential limousine and the very same gun that is also positively linked to the three cartridge cases found on the Book Depository's sixth floor (the same floor where the weapon that was linked to all of these pieces of ballistics evidence was also found).

If CE399 had been the ONLY piece of ballistics evidence that was found after the shooting, then the CTers would have a much better argument for that bullet being "planted", or "substituted", or whatever.

But even in such a make-believe scenario, those conspiracy believers could still never in a million years PROVE that the bullet had been planted (or placed into evidence by one or more evil "conspirators"), but at least the suspicious conspiracists would have had a better argument, because in such a hypothetical instance, CE399 would have been the ONLY piece of bullet-related evidence connected with Oswald's rifle.

But since there's so much OTHER stuff (bullet-wise and shell-wise) that links Oswald's Mannlicher-Carcano to the assassination, CTers who continue to want to believe that CE399 didn't really come out of Oswald's rifle when JFK's car passed through Dealey Plaza on November 22nd have a very large mountain to climb in order to advance the "399 Is A Fraud" conspiracy theory.

Because if CE567 and CE569 (the two front-seat bullet fragments linked conclusively to Oswald's rifle) are the Real McCoy (i.e., genuine evidence that wasn't tampered with in some manner)....

And: if the three bullet shells that were found by the police underneath the sniper's window on the sixth floor are also genuine....

Then common sense (plus the overall ODDS) would certainly indicate that it's very, very likely that Bullet #399 was ALSO a "genuine" article as well, with that whole bullet exiting Lee Harvey Oswald's gun at 12:30 PM on 11/22/63 in Dealey Plaza.

And if the CTers wish to travel down the "ALL OF THE CARCANO (C2766) BULLET EVIDENCE IS TAINTED" road, then they've got THREE "This Evidence Is Tainted" mountains to climb -- the "CE567/569" mountain; the "Shells In The Window" mountain; and the large hill marked "CE399" too.

I hope those CTers are in good shape and are really good mountain climbers. Because getting to the top of just ONE of those three Mount Everests is likely to give an average (and reasoned-thinking) person a coronary.

But that hasn't stopped certain conspiracy theorists from heading up that unclimbable series of peaks. Has it?

David Von Pein
October 2007


  • "There is no problem with the chain of custody of much of the physical evidence against Oswald, such as the rifle and the two large bullet fragments found in the presidential limousine. .... And most important on this issue, courts do not have a practice of allowing into evidence only that for which there is an ironclad and 100 percent clear chain of custody, and this is why I believe that 95 percent of the physical evidence in this case would be admissible. I can tell you from personal experience that excluding evidence at a trial because the chain of custody is weak is rare, certainly the exception rather than the rule. The typical situation where the chain is not particularly strong is for the trial judge to nevertheless admit the evidence, ruling that the weakness of the chain goes only to "the weight of the evidence [i.e., how much weight or credence the jury will give it], not its admissibility"." -- Vincent Bugliosi; Page 442 of "Reclaiming History" (Endnotes)(c.2007)




The cable television network "The Discovery Channel" aired the documentary program "JFK: Beyond The Magic Bullet" in November 2004, a very impressive John F. Kennedy assassination-related program which set out to attempt to duplicate (with all possible accuracy) the controversial "Single-Bullet Theory"; and it's a program which hammered one or two more nails into the "conspiracy" coffin.

The more and more time that passes, the firmer and more solidified the "Lone Assassin" position becomes with respect to JFK's murder in Dallas on November 22, 1963; while the "It Was A Conspiracy" side makes no headway whatsoever, with zero tests like that of The Discovery Channel's "SBT" test being performed to prove the conspiracy buffs are correct. Nor do we ever see any computer simulations for the "CT" side to "prove" their case for conspiracy (a la Dale Myers' exacting animation project, which, like the "Magic Bullet" program, goes a long way toward proving the SBT is a truism).

Several impressive things supporting the overall doability of the SBT scenario came out of the "Beyond The Magic Bullet" program.....such as the "log" test (with a bullet being fired into a solid block of wood). The test bullet looked absolutely perfect after being dug out of several feet of wood.

And, of course, the actual SBT re-creation itself....which proved beyond any doubt that a Western Cartridge Company, 6.5-millimeter, full-metal-jacketed, Mannlicher-Carcano bullet exactly like CE399 (the actual bullet from the JFK case in 1963) could, indeed, take a very similar path through two "bodies", and then emerge in pretty decent we can see here:

The Discovery Channel test bullet was more damaged than CE399, but IMO the test proved a very important thing -- it proved that a bullet like Oswald's 399 could go through two bodies, do a lot of damage, and NOT BE BROKEN UP AT ALL.

The test bullet, just like 399, emerged PERFECTLY WHOLE (i.e., not fragmented at all). It's all in ONE PIECE. It's flattened more than 399, sure....but certainly not banged all to hell like Dr. Cyril Wecht seems to think a bullet like 399 would HAVE to have been if it went through the bodies of both Jack Kennedy and John Connally and caused seven wounds; and the "test" bullet caused an extra (2nd) rib fracture within the John Connally mock-up "body" during the re-creation as well.

The nose portion of the test bullet wasn't flattened at all either, which is an important factor, indicating almost certainly it took a similar path through John Connally's "mock" torso in the test, just as CE399 most-likely took through JBC's real torso in 1963 -- indicating a bullet that smashed into most of the hard objects that it hit in a BACKWARD, END-FIRST manner, thereby keeping the nose undamaged.

And another impressive part of the "Magic Bullet" broadcast was the ending sequence which had a doctor giving his erroneous opinion that the damage he had just seen in the X-rays from the re-creation almost certainly must have been caused "by more than just one bullet".

When proven wrong in this multi-bullet belief, the Los Angeles doctor was genuinely surprised. (Do CTers think that he's a "CT plant" too...only feigning "surprise" when confronted with the test results to further the notion of the SBT?)

Another point I'd like to make regarding the "Beyond The Magic Bullet" re-creation (with respect to Connally's thigh wound)......

Many CTers like to point out (with some glee) that the "test" bullet in the Discovery Channel re-creation/simulation didn't penetrate the surrogate "thigh wound" of JBC. Instead, the test bullet struck the simulated thigh and then immediately bounced off into the grass.

But it's very, very possible that a similar occurrence DID happen with the real John Connally on 11/22/63 -- that is to say:

It's quite possible (given the nearly-"spent" condition of Bullet CE399 at the time it struck Connally's leg) that CE399 did not remain in his thigh for any length of time at all. Perhaps it immediately came out of that shallow leg wound and then simply fell down into Connally's pants leg....where it remained until later falling out of the clothing onto his stretcher inside Parkland Hospital.

But the main point I want to make about the "bouncing off the thigh" test bullet vs. the real bullet that struck Connally on November 22nd is.....

If CE399 did, in fact, pop out of JBC's thigh just after entering his leg, it would have had virtually NO CHOICE but to remain in Connally's pants leg (unless CTers want to theorize that the bullet miraculously exited JBC's leg by way of the very same small hole in his pants where it entered).

Sure, the bullet could have conceivably found its way down to the bottom of JBC's pants-leg opening and dropped out into the car immediately. But a reasonable person researching the case knows that that scenario did not happen....because if it had occurred, a bullet would have been found in the car that could equate to Connally's wounds.

In my opinion, it's very likely that that bullet (CE399) almost immediately fell out of JBC's leg after striking the thigh, and it remained in his pants leg until after he was wheeled into the hospital.

Such a scenario would also (in a small way at the very least) explain why there was no trace evidence left on 399....due to the fact that it was never "buried" in a victim for any length of time whatsoever....thereby making it less likely for trace evidence to have accumulated on the missile.

All-in-all....that Discovery Channel broadcast did an amazing job at replicating the damage path and general characteristics of CE399. The test bullet exited the JFK mock body much lower than the real 399 did in '63, true. I certainly cannot deny this obvious difference. But we must keep in mind that a PERFECT re-creation can never be fully achieved, with every single "human" nuance accounted for (since only mock torsos were utilized in the re-creation).

With some unavoidable limitations in mind, the SBT re-creation done by the Australian team of JFK researchers in early October of 2004 is as close to the real event that I believe we're likely to ever see. And the results most certainly do not debunk the likelihood of the Single-Bullet Conclusion. To the contrary -- the results of that re-creation enhance the viability of the Warren Commission's one-bullet conclusion greatly.


Prominent JFK assassination researchers Vincent Bugliosi and Dale Myers both put in appearances in the Discovery Channel "Beyond The Magic Bullet" documentary.

Myers convincingly demonstrates the rock-solid validity of the Single-Bullet Theory, via portions of his Emmy Award-winning 3D computer animation of the assassination ("Secrets Of A Homicide: JFK Assassination").

"It's a straight's the only way it COULD have happened." -- Dale K. Myers ....


Bugliosi, in his only appearance in a JFK documentary of this nature (that I am aware of; not taking into account his appearance as the prosecuting attorney in the 1986 TV Docu-Trial, "On Trial: Lee Harvey Oswald"), provides a few tidbits of general information throughout the early stages of the program.

I would have enjoyed hearing a lot more from Vince and Dale during this documentary program, but their on-screen time is not very prolonged...but intriguing nonetheless.

Here are some verbatim quotes spoken by Vincent Bugliosi during the "Beyond The Magic Bullet" program:

  • "The American people are simply misinformed. They think they know what happened; but there's an enormous amount of material in this case they have no idea about." -- VB

  • "If, in fact, the bullet that passed through Kennedy did NOT go on and hit Connally, then the bullet that DID hit Connally, by definition, would have had to have been a separate bullet from a second gunman. Why? Because Kennedy and Connally were hit virtually at the same time. And with Oswald's single-shot, bolt-action rifle, it would have been absolutely impossible for him to squeeze off two rounds within a split-second of each other." -- VB


That last Vince Bugliosi quote above goes a long way, in my opinion, toward debunking the "Anti-SBT/Pro-Lone Gunman" theory put forth by Mark Fuhrman in his 2006 book "A Simple Act Of Murder", which is a theory of Mr. Fuhrman's that DOES indeed have Oswald performing a non-SBT solo act and doing what Vince has said (via the above quote) is "absolutely impossible".

I agree 100% with Mr. Bugliosi -- it was "absolutely impossible" for Lee Harvey Oswald to wound JFK and John Connally with separate bullets, given the Zapruder Film timeline of the event.

The Single-Bullet Theory is still fully intact....and always will be in my opinion. It's the "best evidence" in the case for what actually happened to President Kennedy and Governor Connally on November 22, 1963.

David Von Pein
December 2004
October 2006
November 2006
March 2007



About the only thing wrong with [Vincent] Bugliosi's 3D diagram depicting the Single-Bullet Theory [which is an illustration that appears in the photo section of Bugliosi's 2007 book, "Reclaiming History"] is that he's got JFK turned a little to his right when Bullet CE399 hit Kennedy in the back...which I don't think is the correct posture for President Kennedy at that time. And Dale Myers doesn't think it's the correct position to have Kennedy in when he's shot by the SBT bullet either, per Dale's third picture from the top HERE.

Bugliosi has JFK turned a little to the right, which is making the bullet enter his upper back slightly too far to the RIGHT of its actual entry location. But if we were to "straighten out" Kennedy in VB's chart and make his shoulders almost perfectly parallel with the back seat (which is the exact "parallel to the back seat" position Dale Myers has used for his 3D animation, which, of course, is keyed to the Zapruder Film itself, making Dale's version the most accurate version we could possibly hope for here in the real world), then the bullet would strike Kennedy in the upper back in exactly the correct location (IMO):

Addendum regarding Bugliosi's SBT chart and VB's general SBT timeline (taken from my review of "Reclaiming History"):

Mr. Bugliosi's Single-Bullet Theory timeline has me puzzled a little bit. The artist rendering pictured [above] appears in the photo section of VB's book, and shows the path of the "SBT" bullet from an overhead viewpoint. And while I believe that Vince is 100% correct about the SBT being an ironclad fact (as opposed to a mere "theory"), this illustration must also be viewed with a grain of salt, given the fact that VB is of the opinion that the SBT bullet struck the two victims "somewhere between Z frames 210 and 222" of the Zapruder Film, which is a 13-frame span on the film when both victims are completely hidden from Zapruder's camera lens by a freeway sign on Elm Street (except for frame 222, when Connally [but not Kennedy] can be seen just after emerging from behind the sign).

Therefore, we can't possibly know for sure the exact positions that President Kennedy and Governor Connally were in at Frame 210 (or even in the following dozen or so frames that follow 210, for that matter), because the darn sign is in the way.

Any specific Zapruder Film-based speculation about the SBT shot occurring at (or just after) Z210 is also strange in another way too, because frames 208 through 211 don't even exist on any high-quality versions of the Zapruder Film, due to the fact that those four frames were damaged by Life Magazine and removed from the film. Only poor-quality first-generation copies include frames 208-211.

I, myself, believe beyond all reasonable doubt that the specific "SBT" point-of-impact Zapruder Film frame can be established....and that frame is almost certainly Z224 (and not "somewhere between Z frames 210 and 222", as Bugliosi says in his book on page 463).

Although, VB says in an endnote (on page 25 of the notes) that the SBT shot occurs at "Z223-224"; so I'm not quite sure which exact Z-Film frame Vince totally endorses, if any.

Plus, on pages 325 to 327 of the CD's endnotes, Bugliosi acknowledges the very real possibility (via Dr. John Lattimer's 1994 "lapel bulge" tests) that a single bullet could have passed through both Kennedy and Connally at Z224.

Vince actually mentions a 3-frame range of Zapruder frames in this "lapel" regard, which seems a little strange to me; but at least VB admits the possibility of the bullet striking at the correct frame (IMO) of Z224, when he says this on endnote page 325: "A bulging of the right lapel of the governor's suit coat may pinpoint the moment Governor Connally is hit to be at Z222–224".

Another oddity is that even though Vince supports a "Z223-Z224" and/or a "Z222-Z224" SBT hit at various stages in the book's endnotes, in other portions of the main text he also seems to be endorsing the notion that Connally was reacting to already having been hit by a gunshot as early as Z222, which I totally disagree with.

I can't detect any such Connally "reaction" at Z222 at all. The first firm "reaction" on Connally's behalf comes later, at Z225, just after having been struck at Z224. Again, that's in my own personal opinion on the matter.

However, there's another indication in the book that VB advocates the exact same frame for the SBT that I, too, endorse (Z224). That occurs on page 40, when Vince says the second shot (the SBT shot) occurs "3.5 seconds" after the first shot which missed the limousine, a first shot which, elsewhere in the book, VB says comes at Z-Film frame 160.*

And the only frame that is precisely "3.5" seconds after Z160 is Z224 (given the "round-off" mathematics that VB is utilizing on pages 40 and 41 and Zapruder's camera speed of 18.3 frames-per-second).

* = A "First-Shot Footnote" -- I completely agree with VB's "Z160 first shot" timing. However, I disagree with him on the exact scenario of how bystander James Tague was wounded by this first bullet.

Vince thinks the probability is high that the Z160 missed shot hit the concrete on Elm Street and then the bullet (or a portion thereof) went on to strike yet another hunk of street pavement over on Main Street, which resulted in a bullet fragment or concrete fragment slightly injuring Tague's cheek. (See page 471.)

I just cannot quite believe such a scenario myself. I think it's much more likely that Oswald's first shot struck a portion of the nearby oak tree, with the bullet then probably fragmenting (at least partially), sending the majority of the lead portion of the bullet out to Main Street, resulting in Tague's wounding, while the metal jacket of the missile possibly struck the pavement on Elm near JFK's car, resulting in the "sparks" that a few witnesses reported observing.

But, of course, realistically, the only thing that can be done with respect to any "missed" shot is to simply guess about what happened, since no physical bullet was recovered with regard to the shot that missed the limousine's victims.

Another possibility concerning Tague's injury is that he was struck by a fragment of the bullet that hit JFK in the head. I, however, don't like that theory much either, since that bullet would have probably been pretty much spent and out of gas by the time it travelled the many additional yards from the limousine to Main Street to meet Tague. ....

Obviously, Bugliosi is simply placing on the table all potential "SBT" possibilities throughout his immense publication. I, however, would have preferred more consistency in this book with regard to the timing of the SBT bullet strike.

But VB evidently feels that the precise "impact" frame cannot be definitively established on the Zapruder Film for the SBT shot. But I believe it can be established on the film, via the downward and forward movement of Connally's right shoulder at exactly Z224. ....

But even with a bit of ambiguity in his SBT timeline, at least Mr. Bugliosi knows (as do I) that a "Single-Bullet Theory" Z-Film frame positively DOES exist somewhere within Zapruder's 26-second home movie. ....

The exact moment when the controversial "SBT" bullet struck Kennedy and Connally has been debated for many years, of course. Even the two major inquiries into the assassination had differing views on this matter, with the Warren Commission offering up a 15-frame range of Z-Film frames when they said the single bullet struck the victims (Z210-Z225).

But the HSCA placed the SBT at approx. Z190, which, by the way, is the timing that was seemingly endorsed by Bugliosi at the TV Docu-Trial in which he served as prosecutor in 1986; although I strongly suspect that the reason for such a VB endorsement in '86 was due to the fact that Bugliosi's main "SBT" witness/expert at the London trial (Cecil Kirk) was a member of the HSCA, which itself endorsed the absurdly-early Z190 SBT timeline.

So, as we can see from the pages of this book ["Reclaiming History: The Assassination Of President John F. Kennedy"], VB has gotten closer to the Z224 SBT hit in the intervening years.

Another thing that is worth mentioning here is the false accusation made by various people over the years concerning Warren Commission member Gerald Ford. Many conspiracists seem to think that Ford attempted to "move" JFK's back wound up into the "neck" in order to better accommodate the flight path of the SBT bullet.

But a person need only look at the picture shown below to easily see that any "moving" of JFK's upper-back wound up into the "neck" would only serve to DESTROY the path and trajectory of the SBT.

Such a move certainly would not enhance the SBT's path at all, because moving the wound up to the neck would result in the bullet exiting the front of JFK's body in much too high of a location (rather than at the tie knot, where the bullet did exit):

It turns out that I disagree (for the most part) with Vince Bugliosi with respect to the exact timing of the SBT, but certainly not by very much; so I'm not inclined to call a 0.77-second difference of opinion (the time interval between Z210 and Z224) a major or all-important disagreement.

And, as I mentioned, there are references in this book that seem to indicate VB's possible belief in a "Z223-Z224-Z225" SBT hit too (which will no doubt have conspiracists attacking Bugliosi's credibility and lack of consistency throughout the book on this "SBT timing" point, which, indeed, appears to be warranted criticism when you read the whole tome, plus the endnotes).

However, in my opinion, as stated previously, the most important point is the fact that Bugliosi supports the SBT, regardless of exactly when on the Z-Film the SBT is occurring. And this SBT support is due in large part to plain common sense....because the sum total of all the evidence in this case makes the Single-Bullet Theory a virtual certainty.

Or, to use VB's own words (from page 482 of "Reclaiming History") -- "The overwhelming evidence is that whenever Kennedy and Connally were hit, or first reacted to being hit, they were both struck by the same bullet."

David Von Pein
May 2008


  • "Regardless of what exact Z-Film frame the SBT equates to, the point is: There IS a Z-Frame (somewhere on that film) that DOES equate perfectly to the "SBT". There is no way there's NOT such a Z-Frame given the totality of the evidence with respect to the initial wounding of both victims." -- David Von Pein; May 23, 2005




President John Kennedy was murdered in 1963 by an assassin's bullets, and Texas Governor John Connally was also badly wounded in this attack on the President.

In my opinion, one man was responsible for those tragic events in Dallas, Texas. And that one man was Lee Harvey Oswald, who fired three shots at the President's motorcade from the Texas School Book Depository on Elm Street, killing the President and injuring the Governor of Texas.

The controversial "Single-Bullet Theory" (SBT) has been debated by historians, researchers, and critics ever since the release of the official Warren Commission Report in September of 1964.

But when one evaluates the probabilities of any OTHER explanation being the correct version of events surrounding the simultaneous wounding of both JFK and Governor Connally (especially when weighed against the strong evidence favoring the "SBT" version of the event), the Single-Bullet Theory's "likelihood" level rises considerably.

The Abraham Zapruder film of JFK's assassination has aided researchers the world over in attempting to re-construct the murder of the President and the wounding of Governor Connally. And there are many indications within that amateur movie that show the SBT to be an accurate scenario.

One such controversial "indication" of the initial bullet strike to Connally's body is the so-called "lapel flip", when the Governor's suit jacket bulges or "flips" at Zapruder Frame #224.

However, I haven't totally abandoned the idea (purported by some conspiracy theorists and possibly some lone-assassin believers as well) of "the wind" causing the lapel flip/bulge. BUT, I will say, if it WAS "the wind", it sure was an amazing coincidence that that gust of wind moved that lapel at the EXACT same 1/18th of a second when a bullet was probably going through the same general area of Governor Connally's body. Almost TOO much of a "coincidence" to be believed.

However, to be fair-minded on this topic -- it is true, I suppose, that CTers could lash back at the above statement of mine with -- "What the heck are you talkin' about! The lapel flip is the ONLY thing you LNers are relying on to indicate a definitive 'SBT' bullet strike at Z224! So without your 'flip', you've got nada!"

OK...fair enough argument. BUT, just AFTER the lapel flip (in the frames immediately following Z224) there are several things that occur to Gov. Connally that indicate a bullet had just passed through him -- e.g., Connally's "open-mouthed grimace" at precisely Z225. And JFK's mouth is "open" at this exact moment as well, which is BEFORE the President has distinctly moved his arms upward to his throat area.*

* = And, btw, although it can NEVER be "proven", due to that darn Stemmons Freeway road sign being in the way, it is quite possible that Z225 might very well be the VERY FIRST moment in time when JFK's mouth opened too....which, if it could be PROVEN (which it can never be, unfortunately), would be an absolutely-overwhelming indication that a single bullet was piercing both men at the exact same time.

For, I ask: What would be the odds of having BOTH President Kennedy and John Connally having their mouths closed at Z224, but then, at Z225, opening their mouths in that exact same frame? If that road sign could be removed from the Z-Film, we'd know a great deal more, via the visual medium of Mr. Zapruder's film of the event.

Other post-Z224 "reactions" by Connally include a downward movement of his right shoulder, and the biggie for me -- that "Hat Flip", where his cowboy hat goes flying upward in a very quick space of a few Z-Film frames (and remember, it was the RIGHT hand flying upwards there, and it was the RIGHT wrist which was hit by a bullet that day).

However, the Zapruder Film (as good a piece of SBT-revealing evidence as it is) is really totally unneeded to prove the viability of the SBT. Because even without the existence of Mr. Zapruder's 26-second slice of tragic history in the making, there's so much OTHER evidence that tells a reasonable person with common sense that the Single-Bullet Theory is practically the ONLY way the shooting could have occurred back in '63.

Such evidence as:

1.) The Official JFK Autopsy Report (which was signed by all three autopsy doctors who attended President Kennedy's autopsy at Bethesda), which states without reservation that the bullet that entered JFK's upper back "made its exit through the anterior surface of the neck".

2.) The seated positions in the car of the two shooting victims, one right in front of the other (with JBC just a little lower and a little left of JFK, consistent with SBT-dom).

3.) The physical locations of the two victims' wounds, which are definitely consistent with one bullet having travelled through both JFK and JBC.

4.) The oblong-shaped entry wound on Governor Connally's back, perfectly consistent with the SBT....because this wound certainly indicates that the bullet which entered JBC's back hit something else prior to striking the Governor's back. And the only physical "something" that was between John Connally and the rifle which fired that bullet was the person of John F. Kennedy.

5.) "Stretcher Bullet CE399" being found IN THE HOSPITAL where the victims were taken.

6.) CE399 being scientifically linked to Lee Oswald's rifle and to Connally's wrist fragments. (With a good deal of probability, that bullet traversed John Connally's body that day in Dallas.)

7.) The incredibly-important fact of NO OTHER BULLETS being found anywhere that can be "connected" with these "SBT"-like wounds on the two victims (not a bullet in Connally and not a single whole bullet in Kennedy's back or neck either). This little item here is a KEY to proving the validity of the SBT, and the CTers need to go out on a very shaky limb to get around this not-so-insignificant "No Bullets In Kennedy" item; they'll need either divine intervention to further the conspiracy "plot", which would include BOTH bullets that went into JFK just vanishing ON THEIR OWN (somehow); or the conspiracists need an after-the-fact cover-up, which has plotters digging TWO whole bullets out of JFK's body without a single non-conspirator getting wise. (Not to mention the silliness in the first place of having to purport that TWO bullets just STOPPED DEAD in the soft flesh of the President, both failing to exit the body. That's nutty unto itself.)

8.) No back-seat limo damage that would indicate a bullet struck those seats. And no bullets there either (save very small fragments, plus the two larger fragments in the front seat, which perfectly conform to the Lone-Assassin head-shot scenario).

And the Zapruder Film isn't required to prove the existence of any of the above evidence. Therefore, sans the Z-Film, the SBT is still rock-solid.

Getting back to the lapel flip specifically for a moment more ---

The following motion clip covers Zapruder Frames 222 and 223. Via this Z-Film clip, it does seem that the jacket lapel of Mr. Connally might very well have been moving around even prior to Z224, thus casting some doubt on the idea that the "flip" at Z224 was being caused exclusively by a bullet:

In the final analysis.....

After all the chips have fallen (and considering all of the evidence favoring the SBT, while being forced via common sense and logical thinking to reject the incredible amount of hocus-pocus and conspiratorial hijinks that would have been required in order for the SBT to not be true) -- the Single-Bullet Theory, in my opinion, is by far the most-likely-to-be-correct version to explain the wounding of President Kennedy and Governor Connally on November 22nd, 1963.

David Von Pein
January 2006




On November 22nd, 1963, when President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was hit in the upper back with a 6.5-millimeter full-metal-jacketed bullet fired by assassin Lee Harvey Oswald (from Oswald's own bolt-action Mannlicher-Carcano rifle), it marked the beginning of what many, many people around the world deem to be an "absolutely-impossible occurrence" -- for that wound on John Kennedy's back was the first "link" in what is now known as the "Single-Bullet Theory" (with some conspiracists referring to it as the "Magic-Bullet Theory").

But, in reality, there is no "magic" to this "theory" at all. The "SBT" bullet that was fired by Oswald from his sixth-floor Sniper's Perch in the Texas School Book Depository Building did not have to "zig" and "zag" all over God's Creation in order to strike both JFK and Texas Governor John Connally that day in Dallas. That is a provably wrong "CT myth".

Connally was seated "inboard" of Kennedy and was seated a few inches lower in his jump seat than was the President on the back seat.

And the bullet in question did not have to "stop in mid-air" for XX number of seconds, per what many pro-conspiracy people seem to want to think. The reactions of the two victims in the Presidential limousine are completely consistent with one bullet having struck both men at the very same point in time. Just watch this real-time video clip (below) from Abraham Zapruder's home movie a few times back-to-back. After doing so, it's nearly impossible (IMO) to totally discount the idea that the two victims are reacting to being hit by gunfire at precisely the same time. .....

Via my own personal common-sense view of the subject, the long and short of this decades-long debate over the accuracy of the "SBT" is simply this -- It doesn't really matter, in the long run, whether anybody "believes" the SBT is true and/or doable or not.

Why not? -- Because the hard, physical evidence that exists is telling us beyond much doubt whatsoever that JFK and Governor Connally WERE, indeed, wounded simultaneously by way of Bullet "CE399".

Moreover, the current LACK of any other evidence existing to suggest that the SBT is totally wrong only enhances the likelihood that the SBT is probably right.

That is to say, if the SBT is filled with as many holes as most CTers claim it is, and if JFK and JBC had been hit by other bullets to explain their "SBT"-like wounds -- then I have a valid question for CTers .... Where is the evidence for this? Where are these bullets? Why were none of these "other bullets" recovered in (or near) EITHER victim? And THREE disappearing bullets, to boot?!! All going AWOL! Just...silly.*

* = And some people even go one bullet better than that, theorizing that Connally was hit twice, rather than just once. So, that theory would increase the count of "vanishing missiles" to four; which also boosts such a theory to practically immeasurable levels of improbability, not to mention "absurdity".

No anti-SBT theorist has come even remotely close to believably answering those reasonable inquiries I asked above.

As difficult as it is for some people to believe, the sum total of the evidence (plus just ordinary common sense) is telling us that the Single-Bullet Conclusion is, indeed, almost certainly the correct conclusion.

Also -- As hinted previously, by NOT believing the SBT is even vaguely possible, conspiracy theorists are, by default, believing in an alternate scenario (ANY alternate scenario; and it doesn't really matter which "what if?" theory is being postulated) which could ONLY have been much more bizarre and highly-improbable than that of the SBT. So much so, in fact, that only a moron could possibly place any faith in such pro-conspiracy malarkey over and above the logicality of the Single-Bullet Theory.

Conspiracists do realize that fact...right? (Or do they? I wonder.)

Why do I say such a bold thing about the anti-SBT stance?


Lacking the SBT, all of this incredible stuff (somehow) must have occurred in Dallas in '63:

1.) Three different gunmen sprayed Kennedy and Connally with three bullets in a way to make it seem like the three bullet holes in the two victims could be (falsely) "connected" in such a perfect fashion so that these wounds could be "explained away" as being caused by one bullet. (The word "remarkable", alone, can't do justice to this type of shooting feat. Terms like "phenomenal", "extraordinary", and "miraculous" should be added here, too. Not to mention "laughable".)

2.) Two bullets go into JFK and never come out again (despite no hard substances being hit inside Kennedy's neck or back at all). (All the X-rays are fakes too...right?)

3.) A separate bullet hit John Connally in his back, even though Kennedy is situated directly between the shooter and Connally.

4.) Bullet CE399 was "planted" by some unidentified conspirator inside Parkland Hospital prior to 2:00 PM on 11/22/63....a time which is simply crazy for the plotters to want to plant any bullets. (Because they could not possibly have known for certain at that time whether or not the planted missile would turn out to be superfluous.)

5.) All three "real" bullets (which "fake" a nice "SBT" scenario later on) magically disappear, never entering the record in the murder case, and are never seen by anyone (other than "plotters", naturally).

6.) The three gunmen who caused the three wounds (wounds that would later be turned into the "SBT" by the Warren Commission) all fired their weapons in perfect synchronization to one another, making it look beautiful on the Zapruder Film. Because these THREE separate shots ALL LOOK LIKE JUST ONE HIT on the Z-Film.

A truly amazing job by those three assassins indeed.

And, somehow, per CTers, believing in all of the above nonsense is supposedly MORE rational, well-thought-out, fact-based, and (above all) reasonable than sticking with the known-to-exist evidence of the Single-Bullet Theory??

If anyone really believes that this "SBT Alternative" is a more "reasonable" conclusion than the SBT, medical treatment should be sought asap.

Footnote -- BTW, it was, in truth, actually the autopsy doctors who sowed the first seeds of the "SBT", not Arlen Specter and the Warren Commission. The first hint of the SBT is right there in JFK's Official Autopsy Report, which states, unambiguously, that the same bullet that went into President Kennedy's back exited from the front of his throat.

Therefore, via the autopsy doctors, that bullet is now hanging in mid-air after coming out of JFK's neck. So -- where could it have gone? There are only two possible answers to that question:

1.) The bullet went into John B. Connally's body.

-- Or: --

2.) It struck the interior of the automobile without injuring anyone in the car (which would, of course, have caused obvious damage to the vehicle interior).

Number 2 did not occur (per Robert Frazier of the FBI, who examined the limo and found no signs of such bullet damage to the back seats). Therefore, the ONLY possible answer to the mystery is: the bullet went into the body of Governor Connally.

How is ANY other scenario possible (without having to use the words "Everything Was Fixed, Faked, And/Or Fabricated By Unknown Conspirators")?


David Von Pein
February 2006